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Spit on an iPhone

To self-diagnose, spit on an iPhone29 November 2011 by Paul MarksMagazine issue 2840. Subscribe and saveHANDHELD gadgets could one day diagnose infections at the push of a button by using...

Causes of inflammation

Burns Chemical irritants Frostbite Toxins Infection by pathogens Physical injury , blunt or penetrating Immune reactions due to hypersensitivity Ionizing radiation Foreign bodies, including splinters, dirt and debris *Full...

Avoid High Fructose Corn Syrup

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The two-year loss-to-symptom syndrome

The two-year loss-to-symptom syndromeHow does all this information relate to chronic illness?  A combination of all these processes   - 20-second dips, unconscious decisions, the RAS (Reticular Activating System) – creates...

Vascular changes

Acute inflammation is characterised by marked vascular changes, including vasodilation , increased permeability, and the slowing of blood flow, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators. Vasodilation...

Plasma-derived mediators

Name Produced by Description Bradykinin Kinin system A vasoactive protein which is able to induce vasodilation , increase vascular permeability, cause smooth muscle contraction, and induce pain.   C3...

Cellular Component

Cellular componentThe cellular component involves leukocytes, which normally reside in blood and must move into the inflamed tissue via extravasation to aid in inflammation. Some act as phagocytes, ingesting bacteria,...

Tim Noakes called a 'cholesterol denialist'

Tim Noakes called a 'cholesterol denialist' A team of top doctors has warned that Tim Noakes had gone "too far in suggesting that a switch to a high-fat, high-protein diet...

Vinegar

Handy vinegar tips for wellness - To remove calcium buildup on kettles and electric jugs, boil the kettle with half a cup of white vinegar and leave to soak for...

Quercetin, Skin Issues & Stress

Quercetin has been found to powerfully stabilize mast cells , helping to prevent stress-induced anxiety and allergic reactions. Stress itself is adequate to begin the migration of immune cells towards...

Regulators and their role

The Skin Cancer Foundation $eal of approval. The Skin Cancer Foundation (SCF) lends its logo to hundreds of sun protection products. SCF approval is easy: just document that your product...

Help to curb your child's allergies

Help to curb your child's allergies The food industry often uses alternative names for common allergens, which the average consumer might not be aware of.  The higher up the list...

How we remember traumatic events

ScienceDaily (Oct. 29, 2008) — Neuroscientists at The University of Queensland have discovered a new way to explain how emotional events can sometimes lead to disturbing long term memories.In evolutionary...

Colon Cleanse

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Energy Remedy Centres in Bloemfontein and Clocolan, South Africa, offer colon cleansing which is administered by a registered medical nurse using state of the art machines. This modern equipment...

Introduction

Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens , damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism...

     

Various remedies

Which form of healing do you use most often?
 

Natural Healers' Association

Energy Medicine falls under the Natural Healers Association.

Established in February 1999, the Natural Healers Association, was founded by Dr H. Zungu, Katharine Lee Kruger and Chris Rall in Johannesburg . This national organization was registered as a Non Profit Organization on 22 May 2003 by the Department of Social Development. 

NHA aims to widen the window of opportunity to influence the development of healing legislation in South Africa to recognize the spiritual elements of International Traditional, Indigenous, Spiritual, Energy and Natural Healing Methods. By obtaining Government Recognition members will be able to provide a more cost effective and efficient healthcare service for all South Africans and others.

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Inflammation
Vascular changes PDF Print E-mail

Acute inflammation is characterised by marked vascular changes, including vasodilation , increased permeability, and the slowing of blood flow, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators. Vasodilation occurs first at the arteriole level, progressing to the capillary level, and brings about a net increase in the amount of blood present, causing the redness and heat of inflammation. Increased permeability of the vessels results in the movement of plasma into the tissues, with resultant stasis due to the increase in the concentration of the cells within blood - a condition characterised by enlarged vessels packed with cells. Stasis allows leukocytes to marginate (move) along the endothelium , a process critical to their recruitment into the tissues. Normal flowing blood prevents this.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Types of inflammation PDF Print E-mail

Comparison between acute and chronic inflammation:

 

Acute

Chronic

Causative agent

Pathogens, injured tissues

Persistent acute inflammation due to non-degradable pathogens, persistent foreign bodies, or autoimmune reactions

Major cells involved

Neutrophils , mononuclear cells ( monocytes , macrophages)

Mononuclear cells ( monocytes , macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells), fibroblasts

Primary mediators

Vasoactive amines, eicosanoids

IFN-? and other cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, hydrolytic enzymes

Onset

Immediate

Delayed

Duration

Few days

Up to many months, or years

Outcomes

Resolution, abscess formation, chronic inflammation

Tissue destruction, fibrosis, necrosis

*full article available from Wikipedia

 
Signs & symptoms of acute inflammation PDF Print E-mail

The signs and symptoms of acute inflammation:

  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Heat
  • Pain
  • Loss of function

All the above signs may be observed in specific instances, but no single sign must, as a matter of course, be present.

These are the original, or "cardinal signs" of inflammation.

Functio laesa is an apocryphal notion, as it is not unique to inflammation and is a characteristic of many disease states.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Systemic inflammation and obesity PDF Print E-mail

With the discovery of interleukins (IL), the concept of systemic inflammation developed. Systemic inflammation is not confined to a particular tissue but involves the endothelium and other organ systems.

High levels of several inflammation-related markers obesity . Inflammatory-related molecule levels were reduced and increased levels of anti-inflammatory molecules were seen within four weeks after patients began a very low calorie diet.

Obesity that inflammation and macrophage -specific genes are unregulated in white adipose tissue. There were also signs of dramatic increase in circulating insulin level. Leptin is a hormone protein secreted by stored fat that signals satiety.

In chronic inflammation, the immune cells may mistake fatty deposits for intruders. The body attacks fat. When expanded fat cells leak or break open, macrophages mobilize to clean up and embed into the adipose tissue.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is generated at a higher level in obese people. It raises when there is inflammation throughout the body. Mild elevation in CRP increase risk of heart attacks, strokes, high blood pressure, muscle weakness and fragility.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Systemic effects PDF Print E-mail

An infectious organism can escape the confines of the immediate tissue via the circulatory system or lymphatic system , where it may spread to other parts of the body. If an organism is not contained by the actions of acute inflammation it may gain access to the lymphatic system. A pathogen can gain access to the bloodstream through lymphatic drainage into the circulatory system.

When inflammation overwhelms the host, systemic inflammatory response syndrome is diagnosed. When it is due to infection. Vasodilation and organ dysfunction are serious problems associated with widespread infection that may lead to septic shock and death.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Resolution of inflammation PDF Print E-mail

The inflammatory response must be actively terminated when no longer needed to prevent unnecessary damage to tissues. Failure to do so results in chronic inflammation, and cellular destruction. Resolution of inflammation occurs by different mechanisms in different tissues. Mechanisms which serve to terminate inflammation include.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Process of acute inflammation PDF Print E-mail

Micrograph showing acute inflammation of the prostate gland with the characteristic neutrophilic infiltrate .

The process of acute inflammation is initiated by cells already present in all tissues. At the onset of an infection, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes the redness and increased heat and results in an exudation (leakage) of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling. Some of the released mediators such as bradykinin increase the sensitivity to pain. The loss of function (functio laesa) is probably the result of a neurological reflex in response to pain.

In addition to cell-derived mediators, several acellular biochemical cascade systems consisting of preformed plasma proteins act in parallel to initiate and propagate the inflammatory response.

The acute inflammatory response requires constant stimulation to be sustained. Inflammation ceases once the stimulus has been removed.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Plasma-derived mediators PDF Print E-mail

Name

Produced by

Description

Bradykinin

Kinin system

A vasoactive protein which is able to induce vasodilation , increase vascular permeability, cause smooth muscle contraction, and induce pain.

 

C3

Complement system

Cleaves to produce C3a and C3b . C3a stimulates histamine release by mast cells, thereby producing vasodilation . C3b is able to bind to bacterial cell walls and act as an opsonin , which marks the invader as a target for phagocytosis .

 

C5a

Complement system

Stimulates histamine release by mast cells, thereby producing vasodilation . It is also able to act as a chemoattractant to direct cells via chemotaxis to the site of inflammation.

 

Factor XII ( Hageman Factor )

Liver

A protein which circulates inactively, until activated by collagen, platelets, or exposed basement membranes via conformational change . When activated, it in turn is able to activate three plasma systems involved in inflammation: the kinin system, fibrinolysis system, and coagulation system.

 

Membrane attack complex

Complement system

A complex of the complement proteins C5b , C6 , C7 , C8 , and multiple units of C9 . The combination and activation of this range of complement proteins forms the membrane attack complex , which is able to insert into bacterial cell walls and causes cell lysis with ensuing death.

 

Plasmin

Fibrinolysis system

Able to break down fibrin clots, cleave complement protein C3, and activate Factor XII.

 

Thrombin

Coagulation system

Cleaves the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen to produce insoluble fibrin , which aggregates to form a blood clot . Thrombin can also bind to cells via the PAR1 receptor to trigger several other inflammatory responses, such as production of chemokines and nitric oxide .

*Full article available from Wikipedia

Last Updated on Monday, 22 August 2011 16:25
 
Plasma cascade systems PDF Print E-mail
  • The complement system , when activated, results in the increased removal of pathogens
  • The kinin system generates proteins capable of sustaining vasodilation and other physical inflammatory effects.
  • The coagulation system or clotting cascade which forms a protective protein mesh over sites of injury.
  • The fibrinolysis system , which acts in opposition to the coagulation system , to counterbalance clotting and generate several other inflammatory mediators.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Pharmacological PDF Print E-mail

Certain drugs or exogenic chemical compounds are known to affect inflammation. Vitamin A deficiency causes an increase in inflammatory responses, and anti-inflammatory drugs work specifically by inhibiting normal inflammatory components.

*full article available from Wikipedia

 
Outcomes to inflammation PDF Print E-mail

Scars present on the skin, evidence of fibrosis and healing of a wound

The outcome in a particular circumstance will be determined by the tissue in which the injury has occurred and the injurious agent that is causing it. Here are the possible outcomes to inflammation:

  • Resolution
    The complete restoration of the inflamed tissue back to a normal status.
  • Fibrosis
    Large amounts of tissue destruction, or damage in tissues unable to regenerate, can not be regenerated completely by the body.
  • Abscess Formation
    A cavity is formed containing pus, an opaque liquid containing dead white blood cells and bacteria with general debris from destroyed cells.
  • Chronic inflammation
    In acute inflammation, if the injurious agent persists then chronic inflammation will ensu r e.

* Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Myopathies PDF Print E-mail

Inflammatory myopathies are caused by the immune system inappropriately attacking components of muscle, leading to signs of muscle inflammation. They may occur in conjunction with other immune disorders, such as systemic sclerosis , and include dermatomyositis , polymyositis , and inclusion body myositis .

*full article available from Wikipedia

 
Morphologic patterns PDF Print E-mail

Specific patterns of acute and chronic inflammation are seen during particular situations that arise in the body, such as when inflammation occurs on an epithelial surface, or pyogenic bacteria are involved.

  • Granulomatous inflammation
  • Fibrinous inflammation
  • Purulent inflammation
  • Serous inflammation
  • Ulcerative inflammation

*full article available from Wikipedia

 
Leukocyte numbers PDF Print E-mail

Inflammation often affects the numbers of leukocytes present in the body:

* Full article available from Wikipedia

 
Leukocyte defects PDF Print E-mail

Due to the central role of leukocytes in the development and propagation of inflammation, defects in leukocyte function often result in a decreased capacity for inflammatory defense with subsequent vulnerability to infection.

*full article available from Wikipedia

 
Inflammatory disorders PDF Print E-mail

Abnormalities associated with inflammation comprise a large, unrelated group of disorders which underlie a vast variety of human diseases. W ith many immune system disorders resulting in abnormal inflammation. Non-immune diseases with etiological origins in inflammatory processes are thought to include cancer, atherosclerosis , and ischaemic heart disease .

A large variety of proteins are involved in inflammation, and any one of them is open to a genetic mutation which dysregulates the normal function and expression of that protein.

Examples of disorders associated with inflammation include:

*full article available from Wikipedia

Last Updated on Monday, 22 August 2011 14:30
 
Introduction PDF Print E-mail

Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens , damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate the healing process.

Without inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal. Chronic inflammation can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever , atherosclerosis , and rheumatoid arthritis .

Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic . Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation , leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.

*full article available from Wikipedia

 
Cell derived mediators PDF Print E-mail

Name

Type

Source

Description

Lysosome granules

Enzymes

Granulocytes

These cells contain a large variety of enzymes which perform a number of functions. Granules can be classified as either specific or azurophilic depending upon the contents, and are able to break down a number of substances, some of which may be plasma-derived proteins which allow these enzymes to act as inflammatory mediators.

Histamine

Vasoactive amine

Mast cells, basophils , platelets

Stored in preformed granules, histamine is released in response to a number of stimuli. It causes arteriole dilation and increased venous permeability.

IFN-?

Cytokine

T-cells, NK cells

Antiviral, immunoregulatory , and anti- tumour properties. This interferon was originally called macrophage-activating factor, and is especially important in the maintenance of chronic inflammation.

IL-8

Chemokine

Primarily macrophages

Activation and chemoattraction of neutrophils , with a weak effect on monocytes and eosinophils .

Leukotriene B4

Eicosanoid

Leukocytes

Able to mediate leukocyte adhesion and activation, allowing them to bind to the endothelium and migrate across it. In neutrophils , it is also a potent chemoattractant , and is able to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species and the release of lysosome enzymes by these cells.

Nitric oxide

Soluble gas

Macrophages, endothelial cells, some neurons

Potent vasodilator, relaxes smooth muscle, reduces platelet aggregation, aids in leukocyte recruitment, direct antimicrobial activity in high concentrations.

Prostaglandins

Eicosanoid

Mast cells

A group of lipids which can cause vasodilation , fever, and pain.

TNF-a and IL-1

Cytokines

Primarily macrophages

Both affect a wide variety of cells to induce many similar inflammatory reactions: fever, production of cytokines, endothelial gene regulation, chemotaxis , leukocyte adherence, activation of fibroblasts . Responsible for the systemic effects of inflammation, such as loss of appetite and increased heart rate.

* Full article available from Wikipedia

 

 
Causes of inflammation PDF Print E-mail

*Full article available from Wikipedia

Last Updated on Monday, 22 August 2011 16:25
 
Cardinal signs of inflammation PDF Print E-mail

Infected ingrown toenail showing the characteristic redness and swelling associated with acute inflammation.

Acute inflammation is a short-term process, usually appearing within a few minutes or hours.

It is characterized by five cardinal signs:

  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Immobility (loss of function)
  • Swelling
  • Heat.

Redness and heat are due to increased blood flow at body core temperature to the inflamed site; swelling is caused by accumulation of fluid. Pain is due to release of chemicals that stimulate nerve endings. Loss of function has multiple causes.

These five signs appear when acute inflammation occurs on the body's surface, whereas acute inflammation of internal organs may not result in the full set. Pain only happens where the appropriate sensory nerve endings exist in the inflamed area.

*Full ar ticle available from Wikipedia

 
Cancer PDF Print E-mail

Inflammation orchestrates the microenvironment around tumours, contributing to proliferation, survival and migration. Cancer cells use selectins , chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. On the other hand, many cells of the immune system contribute to cancer immunology , suppressing cancer.

*Full article available from Wikipedia

 
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